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when the country was gripped by its worst market crisis since 1991.
Results on Sunday showed Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) swept three out of four key state elections held since last month, delivering a blow to the ruling Congress Party and bolstering the prospects of opposition prime minister candidate Narendra Modi in national polls due by May next year.
Despite recent policy action by Congress, including moves to attract foreign investments, markets have been clamouring for more measures to bolster an economy growing at its slowest in a decade and to ease infrastructure bottle necks that keep inflation high.
Investors, for now, have concluded that BJP is the most likely to deliver change, analysts said.
"The BJP is considered more right-of-center, pro-business and reform-oriented," Nomura said in a note to clients.
"The fact that runaway spending by the ruling party has not won any votes could be taken as a very positive signal by the markets in terms of voter preference for the kind of policy favoured by the electorate."
The BSE index gained as much as 2.3 percent to a record high of 21,483.74 points, while the NSE index rose as much as 2.5 percent to an all-time high of 6,415.25, surpassing its previous peak hit on January 2008.
Both indexes ended up around 1.6 percent.
Sectors such as infrastructure and construction, seen as most benefitting from a potential BJP victory in elections next year, did especially well.
Builder Larsen & Toubro Ltd, for example, rose 4.1 percent. Lenders, which would benefit from a business cycle recovery, also surged, with ICICI Bank up 5 percent.
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Meanwhile, the partially convertible rupee rose to as high as 60.84 to the dollar, its strongest level since Aug. 12, when the currency was headed to a series of record lows.
Still, analysts warned a BJP victory next year is far from guaranteed given it remains a dominant force only in the northern belt where the most recent elections were held. It has struggled to build up its presence in southern and eastern India, despite several attempts.
The market rally could eventually be capped by worries about an economy expected to grow below even the decade low of 5 percent hit in the previous fiscal year.
The Federal Reserve could also move soon to end its massive stimulus after signs of an improving U.S. economy.
Only a few months ago India was badly roiled by fears of an early end