Rising incomes and urbanisation, unfolding globalisation and changing tastes are leading to diversified consumption baskets. There is greater uptake of dairy products, meat, vegetables and fruits among Indian consumers while the converse is true for cereals and pulses. Amidst these, protein consumption has taken a hit while fat intake has been rising. A recent International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) study shows that more than two-thirds of low- and middle-income Indian consumers take less protein than recommended.
Pulses, often considered as the poor man’s ‘only’ source of protein, are particularly important for vegetarians. India is both, the largest producer (25% global share) and consumer (27% global share) of pulses. Almost all pulses are produced and consumed in India since preferences differ across regions. About 90% of the global area under cultivation for pigeon pea and 65% of the same for chick pea are in India with the respective global production shares being 93% and 68%. Yet, the country's production of pulses has been insufficient to meet the rising demand, resulting in persistent increases in imports and prices.
So, what has been salient in India’s pulses story? Pulses, until recently, have played second fiddle to cereals, viz. rice and wheat. The rice-wheat centric Green Revolution, in few pockets of north-western India, failed to distribute the benefits evenly across regions and crops. In the two decades following the Green Revolution, there were no technological breakthroughs for cultivation of pulses. Their production declined from over 12.5 million tons in 1960-61 to below 10.5 million tons in 1980-81. Faced with this reality, the government took various corrective measures. However, beyond several ineffectual interventions, an impact seems to bear, only recently, from the recent initiative of National Food Security Mission, Pulses (A3P)—2007-08, and the higher minimum support prices (MSP), resulting in a over-19 million tonnes production in 2012-13. The annual production of pulses, that hovered around a narrow range between 11 and 14 million tons in the last three decades, leapfrogged to 18 million tons in 2011-12.
Interestingly, there has been significant regional movement of pulses—from waning in the North to the rise of pulses in the South. Along the same lines, pulses faded in eastern India while picking up in western India. Central India (Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh) became the hub of pulses. Notwithstanding the very recent increase in production, there has been a consistent demand supply gap in pulses of about 3 to