Famous jurist Nani Palkhivala had once said: “If longevity of litigation is made an item in Olympics, no doubt the Gold will come to India.” Recently, law and justice minister Kapil Sibal said in the Lok Sabha that more than 32 million cases are pending in high courts and subordinate courts across the country. As per December 2012, there are at least 27.6 million cases pending in subordinate courts while 4.4 million are pending in various high courts.
Around 66,349 are pending in the Supreme Court as of December 2013. In this scenario, it is no surprise that arbitration is increasingly emerging as the most effective and favoured method of settling high-stake commercial disputes. As companies are wary of litigation in India because of the endemic delays and expensive court battles, well-drafted arbitration clauses are now becoming integral part of contracts between corporates.
This alternate dispute resolution (ADR) mechanism is not only less expensive but also results in a prompt settlement of disputes compared to courts and further chances of litigation are minimised as it is through mutual consent. But even with this growing faith in arbitration throughout the world, India is yet to emerge as a destination for resolving foreign disputes. The current dispute resolution system in India is time-consuming, antique and cumbersome. As a result, even most of the Indian companies are increasingly preferring foreign venues for resolving of differences. Even the Supreme Court has backed dispute resolution on foreign shores. Last week, it allowed a dispute over the Board of Control for Cricket in India’s media rights between World Sport Group (Mauritius) and MSM Satellite (Singapore) to be decided by the Singapore-based International Chamber of Commerce (ICC).
The dispute between the Tata Industries and the AV Birla Group over Idea Cellular was also referred to the apex court-appointed arbitral tribunal in 2008. Even Mukesh Ambani-led Reliance Industries is seeking appointment of an umpire arbitrator from a foreign country to preside over an arbitral tribunal set up to resolve differences with the petroleum ministry over cost recovery for developing the KG-D6 gas field off the coast of Andhra Pradesh.
The most popular arbitral institutions are based outside India. The Singapore International Arbitration Centre and Industrial Arbitration Court, Singapore topped the list, closely followed by the International Chamber of Commerce and London Court of International Arbitration.
The disadvantages of an arbitration in India are: lack of a pool of trained arbitrators; tendency to conduct